Sutta


  1. KESAMUTTISUTTAṂ

Palī

‘Etha tumhe, kālāmā, mā anussavena, mā paramparāya, mā itikirāya, mā piṭakasampadānena, mā takkahetu, mā nayahetu, mā ākāraparivitakkena , mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, mā bhabbarūpatāya, mā samaṇo no garūti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanāva jāneyyātha – ‘ime dhammā akusalā, ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā viññugarahitā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattantī’’’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, pajaheyyātha.

‘‘Etha tumhe, kālāmā, mā anussavena, mā paramparāya, mā itikirāya, mā piṭakasampadānena, mā takkahetu, mā nayahetu, mā ākāraparivitakkena, mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, mā bhabbarūpatāya, mā samaṇo no garūti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanāva jāneyyātha – ‘ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā anavajjā, ime dhammā viññuppasatthā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya saṃvattantī’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, upasampajja vihareyyātha.

English:

Now come, Kālāmas, do not simply believe whatever you are told, or whatever has been handed down from tradition, or what is common opinion, or whatever the scriptures say. Do not accept something as true merely by deduction or inference, or by logical examinations of reasons, or by preconception for certain beliefs, or because of its plausibility, or because a certain recluse or your teacher tells you it is so. But when you yourself directly know: ‘These principles are unwholesome, blameworthy, condemned by the wise,when adopted and carried out they lead to harm and suffering,’ then you should abandon them.”

“Now, Kālāmas, do not simply believe whatever you are told, or whatever has been handed down from tradition, or what is common opinion, or whatever the scriptures say. Do not accept something as true merely by deduction or inference, or by logical examinations of reasons, or by preconception for certain beliefs, or because of its plausibility, or because a certain recluse or your teacher tells you it is so. But when you yourself directly know: ‘These principles are wholesome, blameless, praised by the wise, when adopted and carried out they lead to welfare and happiness’, then you should follow them up and perform them.”

2. SIṂSAPĀSUTTA

Palī:

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kosambiyaṃ viharati siṃsapāvane. Atha kho bhagavā parittāni siṃsapāpaṇṇāni pāṇinā gahetvā bhikkhū āmantesi:

“Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, katamaṃ nu kho bahutaraṃ – yāni vā mayā parittāni siṃsapāpaṇṇāni pāṇinā gahitāni yadidaṃ upari siṃsapāvane”ti?

“Appamattakāni, bhante, bhagavatā parittāni siṃsapāpaṇṇāni pāṇinā gahitāni; atha kho etāneva bahutarāni yadidaṃ upari siṃsapāvane”ti.

“Evameva kho, bhikkhave, etadeva bahutaraṃ yaṃ vo mayā abhiññāya anakkhātaṃ. Kasmā cetaṃ, bhikkhave, mayā anakkhātaṃ?

Na hetaṃ, bhikkhave, atthasaṃhitaṃ nādibrahmacariyakaṃ na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṃvattati; tasmā taṃ mayā anakkhātaṃ.

Kiñca, bhikkhave, mayā akkhātaṃ? ‘Idaṃ dukkhan’ti, bhikkhave, mayā akkhātaṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti mayā akkhātaṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti mayā akkhātaṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti mayā akkhātaṃ.

Kasmā cetaṃ, bhikkhave, mayā akkhātaṃ? Etañhi, bhikkhave, atthasaṃhitaṃ etaṃ ādibrahmacariyakaṃ etaṃ nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati; tasmā taṃ mayā akkhātaṃ.

Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, ‘idaṃ dukkhan’ti yogo karaṇīyo, idam dukkhasamudayanti yogo karaṇīyo, idam dukkhanirodhanti yogo karaṇīyo, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yogo karaṇīyo”ti.

English:

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Kosambī in a siṃsapā grove. Then the Blessed One took up a few siṃsapā leaves in his hand and addressed the bhikkhus thus: “What do you think, bhikkhus, which is more numerous: these few siṃsapā leaves that I have taken up in my hand or those in the siṃsapā grove overhead?” – “Venerable sir, the siṃsapā leaves that the Blessed One has taken up in his hand are few, but those in the siṃsapā grove overhead are numerous.” 

“So too, bhikkhus, the things I have directly known but have not taught you are numerous, while the things I have taught you are few. And why, bhikkhus, have I not taught those many things? Because they are unbeneficial, irrelevant to the fundamentals of the holy life, and do not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. Therefore I have not taught them.

“And what, bhikkhus, have I taught? I have taught: ‘This is suffering’; I have taught: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; I have taught: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; I have taught: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ And why, bhikkhus, have I taught this? Because this is beneficial, relevant to the fundamentals of the holy life, and leads to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. Therefore I have taught this.”

3. BĀHIYASUTTA

    Palī:

    Evaṁ me sutaṁ—ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tena kho pana samayena bāhiyo dārucīriyo suppārake paṭivasati samuddatīre sakkato garukato mānito pūjito apacito lābhī cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārānaṁ.

    Atha kho bāhiyassa dārucīriyassa rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṁ cetaso parivitakko udapādi: “ye kho keci loke arahanto vā arahattamaggaṁ vā samāpannā, ahaṁ tesaṁ aññataro”ti.

    Atha kho bāhiyassa dārucīriyassa purāṇasālohitā devatā anukampikā atthakāmā bāhiyassa dārucīriyassa cetasā cetoparivitakkamaññāya yena bāhiyo dārucīriyo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bāhiyaṁ dārucīriyaṁ etadavoca: “neva kho tvaṁ, bāhiya, arahā, nāpi arahattamaggaṁ vā samāpanno. Sāpi te paṭipadā natthi yāya tvaṁ arahā vā assa arahattamaggaṁ vā samāpanno”ti.

    “Atha ke carahi sadevake loke arahanto vā arahattamaggaṁ vā samāpannā”ti? “Atthi, bāhiya, uttaresu janapadesu sāvatthī nāma nagaraṁ. Tattha so bhagavā etarahi viharati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho. So hi, bāhiya, bhagavā arahā ceva arahattāya ca dhammaṁ desetī”ti.

    Atha kho bāhiyo dārucīriyo tāya devatāya saṁvejito tāvadeva suppārakamhā pakkāmi. Sabbattha ekarattiparivāsena yena sāvatthī jetavanaṁ anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāmo tenupasaṅkami. Tena kho pana samayena sambahulā bhikkhū abbhokāse caṅkamanti. Atha kho bāhiyo dārucīriyo yena te bhikkhū tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te bhikkhū etadavoca: “kahaṁ nu kho, bhante, etarahi bhagavā viharati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho? Dassanakāmamhā mayaṁ taṁ bhagavantaṁ arahantaṁ sammāsambuddhan”ti. “Antaragharaṁ paviṭṭho kho, bāhiya, bhagavā piṇḍāyā”ti.

    Atha kho bāhiyo dārucīriyo taramānarūpo jetavanā nikkhamitvā sāvatthiṁ pavisitvā addasa bhagavantaṁ sāvatthiyaṁ piṇḍāya carantaṁ pāsādikaṁ pasādanīyaṁ santindriyaṁ santamānasaṁ uttamadamathasamathamanuppattaṁ dantaṁ guttaṁ yatindriyaṁ nāgaṁ. Disvāna yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavato pāde sirasā nipatitvā bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: “desetu me, bhante, bhagavā dhammaṁ; desetu sugato dhammaṁ, yaṁ mamassa dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāyā”ti. Evaṁ vutte, bhagavā bāhiyaṁ dārucīriyaṁ etadavoca: “akālo kho tāva, bāhiya, antaragharaṁ paviṭṭhamhā piṇḍāyā”ti.

    Dutiyampi kho bāhiyo dārucīriyo bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: “dujjānaṁ kho panetaṁ, bhante, bhagavato vā jīvitantarāyānaṁ, mayhaṁ vā jīvitantarāyānaṁ. Desetu me, bhante, bhagavā dhammaṁ; desetu sugato dhammaṁ, yaṁ mamassa dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāyā”ti. Dutiyampi kho bhagavā bāhiyaṁ dārucīriyaṁ etadavoca: “akālo kho tāva, bāhiya, antaragharaṁ paviṭṭhamhā piṇḍāyā”ti.

    Tatiyampi kho bāhiyo dārucīriyo bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: “dujjānaṁ kho panetaṁ, bhante, bhagavato vā jīvitantarāyānaṁ, mayhaṁ vā jīvitantarāyānaṁ. Desetu me, bhante, bhagavā dhammaṁ; desetu sugato dhammaṁ, yaṁ mamassa dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāyā”ti.

    “Tasmātiha te, bāhiya, evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ:

    ‘diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṁ bhavissati,

    sute sutamattaṁ bhavissati,

    mute mutamattaṁ bhavissati,

    viññāte viññātamattaṁ bhavissatī’ti.

    Evañhi te, bāhiya, sikkhitabbaṁ. Yato kho te, bāhiya,

    diṭṭhe diṭṭhamattaṁ bhavissati,

    sute sutamattaṁ bhavissati,

    mute mutamattaṁ bhavissati,

    viññāte viññātamattaṁ bhavissati,

    tato tvaṁ, bāhiya, na tena; yato tvaṁ, bāhiya, na tena

    tato tvaṁ, bāhiya, na tattha; yato tvaṁ, bāhiya, na tattha,

    tato tvaṁ, bāhiya, nevidha na huraṁ na ubhayamantarena.

    Esevanto dukkhassā”ti.

    Atha kho bāhiyassa dārucīriyassa bhagavato imāya saṅkhittāya dhammadesanāya tāvadeva anupādāya āsavehi cittaṁ vimucci.

    Atha kho bhagavā bāhiyaṁ dārucīriyaṁ iminā saṅkhittena ovādena ovaditvā pakkāmi. Atha kho acirapakkantassa bhagavato bāhiyaṁ dārucīriyaṁ gāvī taruṇavacchā adhipatitvā jīvitā voropesi.

    Atha kho bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto sambahulehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṁ nagaramhā nikkhamitvā addasa bāhiyaṁ dārucīriyaṁ kālaṅkataṁ; disvāna bhikkhū āmantesi: “gaṇhatha, bhikkhave, bāhiyassa dārucīriyassa sarīrakaṁ; mañcakaṁ āropetvā nīharitvā jhāpetha; thūpañcassa karotha. Sabrahmacārī vo, bhikkhave, kālaṅkato”ti.

    “Evaṁ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paṭissutvā bāhiyassa dārucīriyassa sarīrakaṁ mañcakaṁ āropetvā nīharitvā jhāpetvā thūpañcassa katvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu. Ekamantaṁ nisinnā kho te bhikkhū bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: “daḍḍhaṁ, bhante, bāhiyassa dārucīriyassa sarīraṁ, thūpo cassa kato. Tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo”ti? “Paṇḍito, bhikkhave, bāhiyo dārucīriyo paccapādi dhammassānudhammaṁ; na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi. Parinibbuto, bhikkhave, bāhiyo dārucīriyo”ti.

    Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṁ viditvā tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:

    “Yattha āpo ca pathavī,

    tejo vāyo na gādhati;

    Na tattha sukkā jotanti,

    ādicco nappakāsati;

    Na tattha candimā bhāti,

    tamo tattha na vijjati.

    Yadā ca attanāvedi,

    muni monena brāhmaṇo;

    Atha rūpā arūpā ca,

    sukhadukkhā pamuccatī”ti.

    Dasamaṁ.

     English:

    Thus I heard: At one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Sāvatthī, in Jeta’s Wood, at Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Then at that time, Bāhiya of the Bark Robe was living near Suppāraka, on the bank of the ocean, being venerated, respected, revered, honored, esteemed, in receipt of robes, almsfood, dwellings, and medicinal requisites to help when sick.

    Then when Bāhiya of the Bark Robe had gone into hiding, into seclusion, this reflection arose in his mind: “Among those in the world who are Worthy Ones, or have entered the path to Worthiness, I am one of them.”

    Then a devatā, who was a former blood-relative of Bāhiya of the Bark Robe, being compassionate and desiring his welfare, knowing with his mind the reflection in the mind of Bāhiya of the Bark Robe, went to Bāhiya of the Bark Robe, and after going, he said this to Bāhiya of the Bark Robe:

    “You are certainly not a Worthy One, Bāhiya. Nor have you entered the path to Worthiness. This practice of yours is not one whereby you could be a Worthy One, or one who has entered the path to Worthiness.”

    “Then who now in this world with its devas are Worthy Ones, or have entered the path to Worthiness?”

    “There is, Bāhiya, in the northern countries a city by the name of Sāvatthī. There the Gracious One dwells at the present time who is a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha. He, Bāhiya, the Gracious One, is certainly a Worthy One, and teaches the Dhamma for attaining Worthiness.”

    Then Bāhiya of the Bark Robe being greatly moved by that devatā, immediately went away from Suppāraka, and staying for only one night in every place, went to Sāvatthī, Jeta’s Wood, and to Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Then at that time many monks were walking in meditation in the open air. Then Bāhiya of the Bark Robe went to those monks, and after going, he said this to those monks:

    “Where, reverend Sirs, is the Gracious One living at present, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha? We have a desire to see the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha.”

    “The Gracious One, Bāhiya, has entered among the houses for alms.”

    Then Bāhiya of the Bark Robe having hurriedly left Jeta’s Grove and having entered Sāvatthī, saw the Gracious One walking for alms in Sāvatthī, confident, inspiring confidence, with sense faculties at peace, mind at peace, having attained supreme self-control and calm, controlled, guarded, with restrained faculties, a true nāga. After seeing him, he went to the Gracious One, and after going and prostrating himself with his head at the Gracious One’s feet, he said this to the Gracious One: “Let the Gracious One preach the Dhamma to me, reverend Sir, let the Fortunate One preach the Dhamma, that will be for my benefit and happiness for a long time.”

    After that was said, the Gracious One said this to Bāhiya of the Bark Robe: “It is the wrong time for you, Bāhiya, we have entered among the houses for alms.”

    For a second time, Bāhiya of the Bark Robe said this to the Gracious One: “But it is hard to know, reverend Sir, the dangers to the Gracious One’s life, or the dangers to my life! Let the Gracious One preach the Dhamma to me, reverend Sir, let the Fortunate One preach the Dhamma, that will be for my benefit and happiness for a long time.”

    For a second time the Gracious One said this to Bāhiya of the Bark Robe: “It is the wrong time for you, Bāhiya, we have entered among the houses for alms.”

    For a third time, Bāhiya of the Bark Robe said this to the Gracious One: “But it is hard to know, reverend Sir, the dangers to the Gracious One’s life, or the dangers to my life! Let the Gracious One preach the Dhamma to me, reverend Sir, let the Fortunate One preach the Dhamma, that will be for my benefit and happiness for a long time.”

    “In that case, Bāhiya, you should train yourself thus: In what is seen there must be only what is seen, in what is heard there must be only what is heard, in what is sensed there must be only what is sensed, in what is cognized there must be only what is cognized. This is the way, Bāhiya, you should train yourself.

    “And since for you, Bāhiya, in what is seen there will be only what is seen, in what is heard there will be only what is heard, in what is sensed there will be only what is sensed, in what is cognized there will be only what is cognized, therefore, Bāhiya, you will not be with that; and since, Bāhiya, you will not be with that, therefore, Bāhiya, you will not be in that; and since, Bāhiya, you will not be in that, therefore, Bāhiya, you will not be here or hereafter or in between the two—just this is the end of suffering.”

    Then through the Gracious One’s brief teaching of this Dhamma Bāhiya of the Bark Robe’s mind was immediately freed from the pollutants, without attachment. Then the Gracious One, having advised Bāhiya of the Bark Robe with this brief advice, went away.

    Then not long after the Gracious One had gone a cow with a young calf, having attacked Bāhiya of the Bark Robe, deprived him of life.

    Then the Gracious One after walking for alms in Sāvatthī, while returning from the alms-round after the meal, after going out from the city with many monks, saw that Bāhiya of the Bark Robe had died. After seeing him, he addressed the monks, saying:

    “Monks, take up Bāhiya of the Bark Robe’s body, and after putting it on a bier, carrying it away, and burning it, make a memorial mound for him, your fellow in the spiritual life, monks, has died.”

    “Yes, reverend Sir,” said those monks, and after replying to the Gracious One, putting Bāhiya of the Bark Robe’s body on a bier, carrying it away, burning it, and making a memorial mound for him, they went to the Gracious One, and after going and worshiping the Gracious One, they sat down on one side.

    While sat on one side those monks said this to the Gracious One: “Burnt, reverend Sir, is Bāhiya of the Bark Robe’s body, and the memorial mound for him has been made. What is his destination? What is his future state?”

    “A wise man, monks, was Bāhiya of the Bark Robe, who practiced Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma and did not trouble me on account of the Dhamma. Completely emancipated, monks, is Bāhiya of the Bark Robe.” Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it, on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

    “In the place where the water, earth, fire, and wind find no footing,

    There the stars do not shine, nor does the sun give light,

    There the moon does not glow, there darkness is not found.

    And when the sage, the brāhmaṇa, has experienced nibbāna through his own sagacity,

    Then from both form and formless, happiness and suffering, he is free.”